Creed Taylor and the Origins of Smooth Jazz

Creed Taylor (circa 1970) Courtesy Michael Ochs Archives

Creed Taylor and the Origins of Smooth Jazz

I can assure you the genre Smooth jazz falls from the sky, onto the minds of the people who create and harness it. The emerges where artists are playing jazz music; a significant progression of newer constructs of African, Latin, and European music starting in the 1920s and 1930s. No record, record label, producer, or artist created smooth jazz singularly, but is easy for anyone to discover its key pioneers who gave it life and energy. Smooth jazz and Acid jazz emerge out of Latin-tinged lounge music; experiments showcasing on Broadway and in Hollywood. You had to go to theatres and cinemas to open your ears to lounge music.

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Who Eats Who: A Thing That Makes Nigeria Sweet?

When daily battles for survival, by any means possible, become a custom in a society, it is in deep trouble. Only societies experiencing hardships, a breakdown of law and order, and poor leadership have such customs. In Nigeria, such customs are evidence of democracy and the state not working. Daily public calls for reforms are not subject to consideration nor acted upon. Reversals are more likely than reform or progress. Who listens anyway? Policies only work to enrich the elites and take away whatever the weak can offer or ruled they can do without.

Acts of ‘human devour for survival’ are inhumane, but desperate human beings do them. Try warning a crocodile inches away from its prey of the reach of the International Court of Justice. Or telling a python, crushing a young child of mercy or stays of execution. Nigeria is a desperate society. Man Must Survive is a desperate slogan. Social devour carries a darkness along with it that keeps it safe from any light. Who will shine a light on it? Who will support that person?

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In Search of the Mufugbens

The three mufugbens are, mufugbena, mufugbeneity and mufugbenous. They are words; easy to understand, difficult to define. Tough challenges need genius to define them, yet others stretch beyond intellect’s reach. Mufugben’s origin, I sought to discover, almost compelled me to wish I was a genius. I rejected the wish. It could kill me with ease, faster than sound’s speed. I have for decades heeded the advice, “Avoid taking on loads that can make me pass wind.” Well, pushing out gentle breezes I don’t mind but storms, hurricanes, and tornadoes I loathe. He or she without sin cast the first stone. I am waiting. Continue reading

Nigeria – A Society of Extremes

Malcolm Freeman Godfrey is a man on Facebook I have learnt not to ignore. He is a truth teller in the pure sense and never minces words. Two things are remarkable about his posts. One is he persists in his truth-telling in a post-truth era. The other is he describes Nigeria in extremes. On close reflection, difficult to live, survive or even flourish in Nigeria without being extreme. Living in extremes is the underrated cause of problems in Nigerian society. For society to advance and progress, the balance of power, the Golden Mean (the abhorrence of extremes), fairness, discipline, trustworthiness, honour, and stables preferences are necessary for the rightful allocation and expression of ideas, energies, and stocks available. Introduce an added part of the Human Development Index to measure how unbalanced a society is, Nigeria may win gold without adjustments made.

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The Lure of Collecting Jazz Albums


Classics of jazz music emerge mostly by the consensus of popular opinion. When many people regard a record, a classic, it becomes one. A percieved classic album is more marketable than a nonclassic. Records like movies and books become iconic when they meet with instant popular demand and unanimous acclaim. Such represents or answers essential cultural needs hitherto unexpressed. The Girl From Ipanema swept dancefloors just before the “sex revolution” at a time when Lady Chatterley’s Lover and Tropic of Cancer were being unbanned. The Creator Has A Master Plan captured the trend of young people transiting from psychedelic trips to spiritual ones. Imagine was later released and India became a mecca for seekers. Fables of Faubus was a Civil Rights call-to-action anthem of wokeness (cf. George Floyd incidences). However, tastes and preferences change. Today’s fashion may become tomorrow’s garbage. Such a reality renders jazz pieces either deserving of their classic status or ridiculously overrated. One man’s jazz classic can be another man’s earache.

Very personal jazz classics are embraced by the individual fan. They are borne of felt experience and inner or cultural affinities for artistic expression. Why would a Nigerian have a life-long adulation for jazz, or a Japanese for Bossa Nova, or a Greek for calypso? Universality? Classic jazz records are not timeless gems because Nat Hentoff, Stanley Crouch, or Orrin Keepnews said so. Nor are they down to the Grammy Awards they earned nor runaway sales they achieved on their releases. If jazz is an embodiment of freedom, chew what you like and spit out the rest. Anyone forced to listen to music they dislike has been tortured.
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What Is Academic Jazz, Does It matter?

“Academic jazz” is a phrase that startles me. What does it mean? Today jazz music, jazz dance and jazz poetry are mainstream academic subjects. Libraries of books on jazz theory, performance, improvisation, history, analyses, events, styles, and personalities abound. Many believe jazz, particularly in its bebop and Avant-Garde forms, are intellectual, making it suitable for academic inquiry. If public intellectual giants such as Langston Hughes, James Baldwin, Ralph Ellison, Cornel West, Jack Kerouac, Amiri Baraka, have been steeped in jazz and its expression, it has to be intellectual. Nevertheless, jazz music was not created in university departments or conservatories of music. It came out of Africa, a continent perceived as backward. Most of the earliest practitioners of jazz in the USA could not read nor write English or music. They learnt and played their musical crafts by ear. That said, we may be confronted with the question, does academic jazz or the jazz of academics’ matter?  

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Ayo Odebisi: Through The Words of Henry Miller

 

Ayo Odebisi, also known as Paramole, would have turned sixty-five Wednesday, 28th of April. He was not a man you could forget. The aura he projected on those around him and his immediate environment contributed to the weight of words and ways. I never met anyone as sincere with himself and about the whole palate called life. He stood as an exemplar of the human spirit. I never get carried away by his thought; he was not superhuman, he was human and humane.

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Mufugbenous and Mufugbeneity: What Do They Mean?

 

Since January 2021, friends, acquaintances and even strangers overwhelmed me with questions about a couple of words I often use. I was unaware words can be so intriguing. Remarked in my speech and writing, the words creating unexpected curiosity are “Mufugbenous” and “Mufugbeneity.” Mufugbenous defined is the… let us leave it at that. I can offer proper definitions, but the undue accompanying accusations have deterred me. Words in use are right or wrong, apt or inaccurate, I agree. Accusing me of wreaking mischief or being cryptic or intending to confuse is neither an entreaty nor demand; I reject the accusations with prejudice. Mufugbenous and mufugbeneity have meanings and communicate with clarity. Beyond Internet search engines, unfamiliar but simple words have meaning and currency. Everyone should know that, they must!

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From A Myth to A Cure: Where Does Africa Go After Vaccinations?

Can a universal cure come out of Africa, especially one that originates from mythology? “Nothing good or great comes out of Africa” is a settled statement of the many. Testing the truth of that statement can be either very difficult or very easy, depending on a person’s education and exposure. A reading of James Baldwin’s Stranger in The Village was my first encounter with this oft-heard statement cum conviction. Baldwin argues that the de facto creators of civilisation are Western and only the current civilisation matters. All previous civilisations are mere contributions. Therefore, any non-Western contribution to the present civilisation is necessarily either insignificant or illegitimate. This argument is valid notwithstanding, even when it involves the prevention of millions of deaths.

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Nsibidi: Education in Nigeria Before Colonisation

 

It is the simplest thing in the world to assume Sub-Saharan Africans were illiterate and uncivilised before the coming of the White man. Such is well-embraced by the African – if you are well educated. Empire Day celebrated throughout the Commonwealth colonies reminded Nigerians that the King or Queen of England liberated them from bondage. The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad, one of the best-loved works of Western literature describes the African as a savage and languageless, communicating with grunts like apes. The Father of Modern Social Anthropology, Alfred Radcliffe-Brown, swore that Africans had no institutions until the White man arrived – Africans had no marriages, kingdoms, trade, hierarchies, architecture, alphabet, medicines etc. of their own. All these facts are false but very rarely challenged by African scholars. Literacy and education did exist in South-Eastern Nigeria, for a millennium before colonisation. Let us talk about Nsibidi.
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The Igbe Religion – Whiter than Black

Brazilian Candomble Ceremonies Honor Goddesses Lemanja and Oxum ...
Igbe is neither my personal nor family religion, but I lived in Urhoboland, where it originated and is still practised, long enough to observe the faith with considerable detachment. I have also seen its practice in the United Kingdom. It is an Urhobo religion but may not be exclusively so. In this brief article, I intend to look at the more gnostic and historical perspective of Igbe than its practices.
Igbe in the Urhobo language means “Dance” or “Joy.” Igbe worship is also an act of gratitude to God for life itself and consists of celebratory devotion. The “Gnosis of the Igbe” is a vocation in which the revelation of the knowledge of the divine occurs to male and female practitioners of the religion provided they have a pure heart and mind. The white attire and headwear of the Igbe followers in worship symbolise stainless purity which is reflected inwardly. The spark of the divine often awakens in the fervent celebration of God; this is why dance and song accompanied by drumming are indispensable. Music has the facility to stir the innermost emotions in people.

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Morak Oguntade and the Art of Everyday Expression

After reading Days of Destruction, Days of Revolt by Chris Hedges and Joe Sacco a few years back, the unusual happened. I developed a keen yearning to rediscover a dormant space in my mind for the appreciation of illustrated stories and cartoons. I remembered the political cartoons of Josey Ajiboye and Omoba (Dotun Gboyega) and the entertainment illustrations of Morak Oguntade and some others. The illustrations of these men were as political and useful as the illustrations of Joe Sacco, hence the yearnings. Josey Ajiboye was a pioneer and grandmaster in the print media industry. The depth and influence of the work of these illustrators are incalculable as was elaborated in The Role of Editorial Cartoons in the Democratisation Process in Nigeria by Ganiyu Jimoh.

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Jazz Music & the Influence of Yoruba Culture

There was a time in the ’60s and ’70s when several jazz musicians of repute had to visit Brazil for a new spark of inspiration. It was almost a “rite of passage” for many jazz musicians. Classics like ‘Song for My Father’ by Horace Silver; ‘Brazilian Love Affair’ by George Duke; ‘Jive Samba’ by Cannonball Adderley Sextet; ‘Sidewinder’ by Lee Morgan; ‘Big Band Bossa Nova’ by Quincy Jones were born of rips and sounds of trips to and sounds of Brazil. These are a few of the Jazz Giants that had made their most successful albums through the Brazilian inspiration. Grover Washington Jr, George Benson, Earl Klugh, Bob James, Miles Davis, Herbie Hancock, Stan Getz, Kenny Dorham and many others also had big lifts in their music by way of the Brazilian inspiration. The most Yoruba-influenced jazz group is apparently the Art Ensemble of Chicago (see picture above).

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The Cycle of Good Education and Strong Institutions

Formal education is one of the most overrated things in human development people on the African continent can gain, maybe elsewhere too. Education in the formal sense is an “institutional thing,” i.e. the stuff of institutions. It is not just the stuff of classrooms and ivory towers. Institutions rely on education and education has to be meet institutional and societal requirements through governance for it to serve any useful purpose in society. The symbiosis of institutions and education is both valuable and undeniable. In a nation where institutions are unenforceable, we must expect the education curriculum to be inadequate in many senses. Education is not just the acquisition skills but also the awareness of the requirements of civil participation in a just or improving society.

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A Song for Reassurance: Okpan Arhibo Verses

Oruru ro w’egbedere ko taghra

Oruru ro w’egbedere ko taghra

Obor ri guono ughwume sonobrughwe rovwo na’a

Obor ri guono ughwume sonobrughwe rovwo na’a 

Oruru ro w’egbedere ko taghra

Oruru ro w’egbedere ko taghra

Abortu ri guono ughwu r’Okpan Oghene rovwo na’a

Itu ri guono ughwume Oghene rovwo na’a 

Translation:

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Okpan Arhibo: A Traditional Kind of Disco Music

Cameroonian musician Manu Dibango invented disco music out of the blue with his release of the phenomenal hit single record, Soul Makossa. The year was 1972, and it was a staggering feat from an unknown personality. The listening public could hear the instant break beats and jazz funk influences in the song. And the western musical instruments; the saxophone, drums, percussions, guitars (bass, acoustic and lead), and the piano. Soul Makossa took disc jockeys, clubbers, and everyday radio listeners in large numbers. It soon became a big favourite within the New York music scene and later the globe. The song’s core sensibility, as developed and perfected, came from somewhere; Africa. Around this time, other African musicians, Fela Kuti, Osibisa, Miriam Makeba, Hugh Masekela, working within the same jazz funk paradigm, found instant fame and recognition as innovators on the world’s music scene. And Fela fashioned “Afrobeat” which soon became a distinct international music genre in its own right. Continue reading

Urhobo Blow (UB): A True Martial Art and Sport?

Urhobo Blow or UB, Ubi ejeh [meaning: service of punches] or Ohore r’ubi [meaning: battle of punches], is a traditional martial art developed or modified by the Urhobos for military purposes, initially, but has been witnessed in recent times as a ceremonial contest of strength by young males at annual or seasonal festivals. UB has its similarities with mainstream boxing, but the differences are quite divergent. Many ethnic groups along coastal West Africa have their idiosyncratic boxing and wrestling arts. Still, the main distinguishing feature of UB is that the knock-out punch hand is placed by fighters on their backs just above the buttocks during fights. UB is gradually becoming extinct due to lack of interest, funding, organisation, and exposure but may make a glorious comeback as a mixed martial art of international importance. UB was once and can still be a source of great community pride and make heroes. What makes UB unique and worthy of attention?

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Do The Urhobo People Need Saviours or Leaders?

 

At the moment the Urhobo nation is both essentially saviourless and leaderless, forget the ethnic bosses. Chiefs Mukoro Mowoe, Michael Ibru, David Ejoor, Great Ogboru, and James Ibori have all been arguably seen as saviours of the Urhobo nation. However, only the legacies of Mowoe and Ibru remain as genuine saviours unperturbed and Mowoe the singular unobstructed unifying leader of Western, Central and Eastern [Isoko] Urhobo. This is shocking considering that Mowoe, the foremost Urhobo nationalist and first president-general of the Urhobo Progress Union (UPU), died 70 years ago. This no disrespect to (Urhobo Progress Union) UPU and its host of influential leaders. The Urhobo people have produced many illustrious sons and daughters in many endeavours of life, some even rivalling in achievement the five named saviours. One may wonder what it is that distinguishes these five men as saviours to Urhobos but not necessarily leaders? Continue reading

The Urhobos Do Come Last – Mostly in Politics

 

 

As ridiculous as it may sound, if Anioma were to be granted a State today, the new capital of Delta State would be either Koko (Itsekiriland) or Bomadi (Ijawland) or even Oleh (Isokoland). However, some Urhobos are crying for a [reinstated] “voice” in federal politics at the 90-day suspension of Senator Ovie Omo-Agege (Delta: APC) from the upper house of the National Assembly but they cannot even handle themselves well politically within Delta State. Is this not the time for the Urhobo nation to look inwards and sort its cohesion challenges out?

Fejiro Oliver of Secret Reporters recently wrote about his utter disillusionment with the Urhobos (his full heritage) and his embrace of the Anioma people. He cited his betrayal by Senator Ovie Omo-Agege as the reason for his chosen ethnic preference. He was poached by Omo-Agege from NTA to be a staff writer with Urhobo Vanguard newspaper set up to assist Omo-Agege in his gubernatorial ambitions. When Fejiro was kidnapped in Niger State for investigative journalism in 2014, Omo-Agege and the entire Urhobo nation turned their backs on him giving mostly unbecoming excuses. Continue reading

Obasanjo 3 Soyinka 0

OBJ Soyinka

The bickering between Nobel Laureate Wole Soyinka and ex-President Gen Olusegun Obasanjo (Rtd) continues. Sometimes simmering sometimes crackling it will never stop. There is no love lost between the two men. Obasanjo is the hedgehog and Soyinka is the fox if one uses Isaiah Berlin’s understanding of great characters. However, the bickering in question is over the contents of the memoir “My Watch” by Obasanjo which has seen Soyinka caught out with a hat trick; Obasanjo 3 Soyinka 0!

Djomuu! Continue reading

Fame and Prize Winners: Wole Soyinka and Nnimmo Bassey

SOYINKA20120202

Wole Soyinka is famed for winning the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1986 based on his significant contributions to poetry and drama. Though his award was highly controversial and the Nobel Committee’s ‘choice’ felbious, Soyinka won the prize anyway, deservedly. He was the first African to win the prize. There are very few urban Nigerians that do not know who Wole Soyinka is; he is a living legend. Continue reading

The Near Death Experience of a Petite Man

Tomos was a petite man in his 40s and could easily pass for a young teenager sometimes. Usually very smartly dressed in formal attire to look much older than his boyish appearance, he was on his way to revel with friends at a house warming party in Walworth, South East London. He had to walk a very long distance to get to the party since though dressed like a toff with an elegant suit, shiny shoes and a cravat, he could not afford bus or taxi fares. His masked intention of attending the party was ‘financial edification’; seeking bad loans and grants. Professionally, Tomos was an architect but had never designed a structure in his life. Somehow it was tough for him to get his act together. His mind was far too nefarious and preoccupied malevolent actions to hold a job in a professional setting. Enduring cooperation, collaboration and team skills were things he lacked. He was more excellent in the art of disruption, sabotage, mischief and chaos. You could comfortable rely on him to mess a good job up or bring a good man down.

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Strange Combinations and Dietary Shockers: A Case of ‘Stella and Bread’

In everyday Nigerian parlance the word “combination”, regarding food, connotes meals that consist of unlikely combinations. Meals are essentially combinatorial products; chips and chicken; a stew made of vegetable oil, tomatoes, pepper, fish and condiments; pineapple fried in batter. People effortlessly appreciate these combinations as customary, but others appear shocking and strange to them.
Take a look at a meal of ‘kola nut and akamu’ (a.k.a. ogi, kunu or pap)! I have seen someone eat that and when I told some people about it, they said maybe the guy was using it as a prescription of magical traditional medicine. I have seen someone eat an ‘amala sandwich’ (bread, butter with a wrap of amala in the middle)! When I first saw an uncle of mine eat ‘bread and coconut’ I was shocked, but a trial convinced me that it was not bad at all. Even ‘rice and yam’ with stew seem odd to many while millions of others eat it.

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A Jazz Great I Met: Clifford Jarvis

Clifford Jarvis, Dance for Life State of Emergency

It was an autumn evening in 1996 when I visited the up and coming French jazz bassist, Collard Romain, at his flat in Camberwell, London. Collard shared the flat with an up and coming pianist, Javier. Theirs was a flat of jazz music. I had met Collard and saxophonist Christian Brewer a few months earlier at one of the evening jazz duo sessions at Café Boheme in Soho, and we became friends.
It had rained hard just before I set out to meet Collard at his flat one evening and cold. When I knocked on his door, a black guy in jeans pants and a jeans shirt opened the door and asked me who I was looking for in an American accent. A quick and apt description of the guy was that he looked like the father or older brother of rap artist Snoop Doggy Dogg. On entering the flat Collard warmly welcomed me as usual and then enthusiastically introduced Clifford Jarvis to me. I was amazed.

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The Confessions of A Post-Impotent Guy

 

The guy [who confessed] was overcome by frustration, hopelessness, sadness and non-existent self-esteem. The problem he had was quite unusual or perhaps very usual, but it deflated him. He found out overnight for some strange reason and maybe exacerbated by diabetes that he was impotent, yes impotent. In his own eyes, he was no longer a man. A few women who had fancied him quickly gave him up when he failed them with non-performance at a time when his stature, muscles, looks and height, at face value, wildly suggested he was capable of gonad-watering performances.

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The Privileged Nigerian Intellectual?

Whether Nigerian intellectuals like it or not, Europe and its extensions were built with the ideas of intellectuals. I cannot imagine a Europe without its prodigious history of great intellectuals in all spheres of learning. The intention here is not comparison but waste. It would appear that in recent times of democracy post-1999 Nigerian intellectuals are increasingly a waste of space because they are not needed. The only intellectual pursuit of note is transient (political and doctrinal economic) consultancy/advice for profit. Is that all they have got though? Continue reading

The Ontology of the African II: The Youth

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The derisory ontology of the African has not gone unchallenged. At the forefront, intellectuals, civil society leaders, freedom fighters, artists, activists, missionaries and politicians of African descent have chosen innumerable paths and approaches to reverse or negate the derisory ontology of the African to produce a more if not thoroughly positive one. Students, synonymous with youth, appear to be the engaging group of Africans most willing, able, qualified and equipped to challenge the African ontology in the mainstream. How are these young students and scholars faring?
Looking at the African, Afro-Caribbean and African-American experience, the historic protesters against derisory African otology in its political, economic and social forms were mostly under-40s (or peaked before 40). These men and women embraced the dreadful state of the ontology of the African with hope, intelligence, intellectualism, faith, dynamism, courage, martyrdom, idealism and realism. They were all willing to pay the price for challenging White Supremacy, White Colonialism and White exploitation which was often violent and painful death.

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